Why do many workplace PCs still run on old software?

A few reasons:

1.  Cost. Upgrading software is expensive.  If an upgraded licence costs $50 that may not seem like much, but doing that for 5,000 machines gets really expensive really quickly. 

2.  Compatibility. Very often, companies will have custom or specialized software that may not function well with newer software.  If the older software doesn't have patches/upgrades, or those patches/upgrades are not cost effective (see point 1) you may need to keep other software downgraded in order to preserve compatibility.

3.  Security/Reliabilty. Older software - particularly in the enterprise - can be more secure and/or stable because the bugs and security holes have been patched. Newer software may introduce newer bugs that can compromise operations.

4. Usability. Not everyone is computer literate in a company and upgrading their software may confuse them to the point where they struggle to do their job until they learn the new software.

Why does a laser pointer have a grainy pattern in the beam?

The light from a laser is coherent, all the waves of the same wavelength, color, and all in exact lockstep with one another. When the beam strikes a surface and bounces off and the wavefronts collide with one another and can reinforce and/or cancel one another.

The sparkle pattern (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Speckle_pattern) of a laser can be compared to the choppy surface of a lake on a windy day as waves cancel and reinforce one another to the extent that no regular pattern of waves can be seen.

What is the difference between economic recession and depression?

An economic depression is a form of a recession. A recession is determined as two or more consecutive quarters of negative GDP growth; while a depression would be measured in years and not quarters.

In the Great Recession, the United States experienced 6 quarters of negative GDP growth (3rd quarter 2008 to 1st quarter 2010) so it was more than a simple recession but it did not quite meet the standard for a "depression" as we were only in a recession for about a year and half.

Had they been in official recession for say 8 quarters or more (there are four quarters in a year), a conversation could have been had whether it was a depression instead of just a recession.

Some argue that they were in a depression; however, the stigma associated with the Great Depression provides that the term is only used as a last resort. No government wants to admit they are in a depression as that word is automatically associated with the hardship of the early 30s.

How do chicken eggs not crack inside their body?

Eggs can crack inside the hen, but it's not common because eggs are actually pretty strong when forces are applied evenly over the entire shell.

If you wrap your whole hand around an egg trying to make as much surface contact as possible, it's actually pretty difficult to break the egg by squeezing it. If you pinch the egg between two fingertips, it's much easier because the force is concentrated on a smaller area of the shell.

Imagine pushing an egg on to the point of a sharpened pencil. It would pierce through pretty easily, right? Now imagine pushing an egg onto a soft ball of clay. It takes much more pressure to break it. So you can imagine if the insides of a hen are pushing on the egg evenly from all directions, it gets even more difficult.

Important Things You Should Know About Car Covers

Car covers are good investment for protecting your car especially if you are not using it. They work well in protecting your car from dirt, rain, UV rays among many other pollutants. Below is a set of frequently asked questions on car covers that might help you understand more about them and make a good decision.

Q: What is the importance of a car cover on my car?

A: There could be a hundred answers to this question but these are the basic ones. Car covers protect your car from UV rays, dust, dirt, scratches, animal droppings, tree sap. In addition, car covers protect your car from harsh weather conditions. Ice could cause fatal damage to your car's finish. This is why a car cover should be used whenever you park your car outside. Animals like squirrels and cats love to play on cars. They, therefore, leave scratches on your car's finish. If you can't prevent them from damaging your car then simply use a cover.

Q: What is the best car cover?

A: This depends purely on your budget and the type of car cover you would want. Nevertheless, a car cover that has a soft finish is the best. Mostly, non-woven polyesters are known to have a soft finish. Good car covers have multiple layers of heavy fabric. This allows breathability and it is harder to have scratches on your car. We advocate for a heavy material rather than a lighter one. Lighter materials keep wrapping around in windy areas. Woven materials are disregarded due to abrasion. However, you should note that not all woven are similar.

Q: Should I invest in customized covers or universal covers?

A: Customized covers are the best compared to universal ones. Though the custom fit is a little bit pricey, it is simply a worthy investment. Nonetheless, there are universal covers that are of good quality and you can find a good fit. If you are searching an inexpensive cover then the universal cover is fine. If you choose to buy a universal cover then you need to choose a slightly larger one rather than a slightly smaller one. We recommend that you choose the customized one especially if your car is of high value.

Q: Can a car cover prevent my car from buglers and thieves?

A: Yes. Thieves and burglars are afraid of being caught and they hope to take the shortest time to steal. A car cover takes some minutes to remove. No thief will attempt to start removing the cover and risk being found. A cover prevents the valuables inside your car from exposure to burglars. If your valuables are covered, no thief will be tempted to steal.

Q: How do I store my car cover correctly?

A: Mostly, car covers come with durable carriers that you can use to store your car cover. Make sure that you fold your cover rather than rounding it up. The bag protects it from dust and dampness. Folding it up will help you fix it anywhere. Storing your cover properly will ensure that your cover will also last long.

Q: How regularly should I wash my car cover?

A: Your car cover is a lot more like your clothes. A car cover is exposed to dirt and dust and hence it will need a regular washing. When washing, be sure to read and understand the washing instructions. Drying will not be a heavy task; you will only need to place it over your car. Apart from washing it regularly, repair the torn areas as soon as they happen. Taking regular care of your car cover will let it serve you longer.

Q: Can I protect my car cover from theft?

A: Yes you can. Some of these car covers are a little expensive. It will be a great loss if it is stolen. Fortunately, when you purchase your car cover, you will be given a cable and a lock pack. After placing your cover well, then use the provided cable and lock to secure it.

Q: How best do I uninstall my cover from the car?

A: Fold your cover well such that you will not have a hard time reinstalling it. Bring all the four sides of the cover on top of the car in two folding. Fold them again two to three times folding. Folding it in this manner will ensure a good angle to store and reinstall it. Make sure that you do not let it fall on dirt.

Would you like to know more about car covers? So please click here for more info.

How did sexual reproduction first develop in animals?

It is difficult to definitively say how it first came about, but there are some key factors that can be used to determine.

First, the main difference between sexual and asexual reproduction is that sexual reproduction "reorganizes" the parent DNA into a new pattern, while asexual is essentially the parent self-cloning. By being able to reorganize DNA, sexual reproduction had an advantage over asexual reproduction because it caused more mutations to occur in the DNA. This leads to a higher chance that a mutation will be beneficial to the organism, especially because the baby organism gets two sets of DNA to choose from, doubling its genetic resources. It also means that if one parent has a successful mutation that the other parent does not have, the baby organism will have a better chance at acquiring that mutation.

Second, we know that with two (or more) sexes, one sex must be more involved in the reproduction than the other. In most species, this is the female organism, which is able to do the reproductive work of bearing young. The male organism can merely contribute DNA, but does not actually bear young. With 50% of the population unable to make the babies, conditions must be good enough to allow the other 50% to reproduce often enough and quickly enough to maintain the whole species' population. This means temperature, food sources, and safety from predators or environmental threats needed to be ideal.

We can break down the evolution of sexes a bit more; there is a term "anisogamy" which means reproduction with sperm and egg. This first evolved in tiny cells that contained only one set of chromosomes. Chromosomes are chains of DNA. When the cells would reproduce, the egg would provide one chromosome, and the sperm would provide a different chromosome. For a brief period, the baby cell would contain both chromosomes, and after a short period of development one of the chromosomes would "win" and that chromosome would become the DNA pattern that the new cell would eventually pass onto its own young.

This "anisogamy" developed when two compatible cells evolved, that were slightly different but able to mate with one another. In the first tiny cells that accomplished this, they were too similar to really be called "male" or "female," but the difference was enough to spark the eventual evolution of male and female.

So, to recap:

Single cells would split in half to reproduce. Then, cells evolved a few changes, and this resulted in different types of cells that contained different sets of DNA. While some of these evolved cells eventually split off into entirely new species from the original cells, some others retained a special compatibility that allowed them to share their DNA, and they could mate with each other. Exactly how they started the ability to share the DNA (i.e. physically have sex, since they did not have vaginas or penises at that point) to make offspring is difficult to know for certain, but it may be similar to how some species of bacteria can "conjugate" or stick together to create new DNA combinations. A bit like the thing absorbing nearby cells and acquiring their DNA. So, the two new types of parent cells were able to provide not one, but two sets of DNA for their offspring to choose from. The offspring would typically end up with the most successful (dominant) DNA. This gave the offspring a better chance at surviving and reproducing, and this adaptation was so successful that it developed into fully fledged male and female versions of a single species.

Why are humans more energy-efficient in running than animals with four legs?

The really simple answer is that humans run more efficiently because we let gravity do a lot more of the work. When we go forward we're basically putting one foot out and falling forward, then pulling ourselves forward and repeating the process with the other foot.

When quadrapedal animals run, they need to propel themselves forward with their front and back legs; the advantages of this are that they can put more of their total muscle mass into running and you get more sources of speed, and run faster/quicker; pretty much any quadraped can out-sprint a human. But humans are the undisputed champions of distance-running on Earth, partly because their run is more energy efficient.

The other thing that helps us run, just as a sidenote, is the fact that our bodies are really good at not overheating. A cheetah for instance can only keep up their vaunted 60 mph run-speed for a very short distance without overheating and exhausting themselves. But our ability to have the airflow of our forward motion wick heat away by evaporating sweat off of us is one of nature's best heat regulation mechanisms, and allows for humans to run for hours on end without stopping, when properly trained.
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