To keep the calculation simple, let’s consider the conversion of 1 kilogram of the Sun’s hydrogen into helium. The conversion produces only 0.993 kilogram of helium. This means the missing 0.007 kilogram of matter or mass is transformed into energy. The equation is E=mc² in which m denotes quantity of mass, c is speed of light equal to 3 x 108 meters or 3,00,000 kilometers per second and E is the joules of energy into which the mass is converted. When you apply Einstein’s mass-energy equation, the energy produced by 0.007 kilogram of matter or mass is equal to E=mc² = (0.007 kg) (3 x 108 m/s)² = 6.3 x 1014 joules which is almost the same as released by burning 20,000 metric tons of coal or 1,06,875 barrels of crude oil.
Every second the Sun converts about 657 million tones of hydrogen into 653 million tons if helium. The remaining 4 million tons of matter is changed into energy.
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