What temperature is faced by astronauts and satellites in the space?

Had there been atmosphere in the space like that on the Earth, intermixing currents of warm and cold air might have made the temperature more temperate but that is not the case as there is neither gravity nor air in the space. Hence, wherever sunrays penetrate there is tremendous heat and wherever they are absent the temperature is so frigid that freezing cold of the Siberian winter is cozy in comparison. Normally, space shuttle as well as satellites makes one orbit around the Earth in 90 minutes (or less if the orbit is lower). As the Sun’s rays fall on the satellite the temperature rises to 122◦ Celsius. But when the satellite passes from the sunny side of the Earth to the dark side where there are no sunrays the temperature plummets to 180◦ Celsius below the freezing-point! In short, there is a swing of 302◦ Celsius between cold and heat in the space.
As the sunrays travel farther in the space it is but natural that the heat goes on diminishing. Suppose a satellite is sent to orbit around Pluto which is the farthest (dwarf) planet from the Sun, it will encounter temperature of 211◦ Celsius below the freezing-point even in sunlight. Beyond Pluto the space has temperature of minus 270◦. This temperature is known as cosmic background temperature in astronomical terms.
More reading:
Outer space (Wikipedia)

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