Will the Earth become a black hole one day?

By no stretch of imagination can this happen. Only a massive star on its death-throes can collapse inward and turn into a black hole, after hurling its outer layers into space by exploding as supernova. Such fate can not befall planets, because unlike stars, they do not have tumultuous nuclear reactor in their core, the fuel of which can run out eventually. Nevertheless, it is instructive to visualize a scenario wherein the Earth ends up as a black hole.

Here we go: A black hole is like a cosmic jail of condemned prisoners. You can check in but you can’t check out. Suppose you throw a ball up into the air. It falls back down on the ground. Now throw it up at a speed greater than 40,000 kilometers per hour, which is Earth’s escape velocity, and it will not return. Escape velocity is the key to understanding black holes. If you can squeeze Earth’s mass into a smaller size by using a giant vice, its escape velocity would rise. After the circumference is reduced to less than 5.6 centimeters, its escape velocity would become greater than the velocity of light, which is about 300,000 kilometers per second. Since nothing can go faster than light, nothing could escape from our compressed Earth – it would become a black hole. Thereafter, gravity would cause Earth to continue to collapse until it is reduced to what is called singularity – a point of infinite density. The space around it would be curved like a rubber sheet with a heavy steel ball in the middle. Enclosing the singularity would be spherical event horizon. Anything that happens inside that sphere would remain hidden from the observers outside the sphere, because any light emitted inside is unable to escape. Without emission of light, Earth would be as black as, yes, a black hole.

More reading:
Black hole (Wikipedia)
Event horizon (Wikipedia)

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