Some substances boil at a very much higher temperature than water. Gold, for instance, melts or becomes liquid at 1063° centigrade, and boils at 2600°. Copper melts at 1083° centigrade and boils at 2300°. Silicon, which forms about a quarter of the Earth’s crust, melts at 1420° centigrade and boils at 2600°. Tin melts at 231° centigrade and boils at 2260°. These are substances that are solid in the ordinary temperatures at which we live. Mercury, or quicksilver, which is normally liquid, boils at 375° centigrade.
When we come to substances that are gases at ordinary temperatures, we find that their boiling point is very low. Hydrogen boils, or changes from the liquid into the gaseous state, at minus 253° centigrade. Fluorine boils at minus 187° centigrade; nitrogen at minus 196°, and oxygen at minus 183°.