How were the early mechanical clocks?

Before the invention of the mechanical clock during the end of 13th century, water clocks and sand clocks were used to keep the time. The newly invented mechanical clocks neither had a pendulum nor the hands. See one of the examples in the photo on the left. A suspended weight would rotate the mechanical wheels and the clock would strike at every hour. With the passage of time, various new models were manufactured. Though each of it had a pendulum, there was no standard format regarding the movement of its hands.

After the craftsmen of various European countries like Italy decided that the movement of the hands of the clock always has to be ‘clockwise’, the idea was accepted by the clock-makers worldwide. Prior to it, many clock having anticlockwise movement of hands were manufactured. The dial displayed the numbers as 1-12-11, instead of 11-12-1.

Additional reading:
Clock (Wikipedia)
Water clock (Wikipedia)

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