Pigeons are common in cities because buildings more closely resemble their natural nesting sites.
Rock doves nest on the side of cliffs. Not in trees or shrubs.
Human buildings provide lots of ledges for nesting.
Combine that with the fact that they’re harmless, (so we don’t kill them for being pests) not tasty (so we don’t kill them for food) and their natural predators cannot hunt well in cities (falcons end up nose diving into walls using their usual tactics, larger predators avoid humans) and you’ve got the perfect combination for a species to cohabit our cities with.
Seagulls are also very common in cities in the UK for the same reason.