Tag Archives: Literature and Art

Which literary work is considered to be the first novel in the world?

Genji Monogatari (cover)
Compared to the other forms of literature such as poetry, drama and story, novel is a modern genre, only digging roots in the 17th century. The history of novel begins in Japan a thousand years ago. The Japanese classic work Genji monogatari, or The Tale of Genji, is considered to be the first novel in the history of literature. And surprisingly, it was written by a woman, named Murasaki Shikibu.
Murasaki Shikibu was a noble woman who lived in 11th century. She was educated and member of the emperor’s court.
As its title indicates, the novel tells the story of a handsome and kindhearted warrior named Hikaru Genji, the son of an ancient Japanese Emperor Kiritsubo and one of his concubines. His romantic affairs with various women, including his stepmother, are the prime subject of the major part of the novel. One of the heroines of the novel is named Murasaki, modeled after the author herself.
Genji Monogatari is primarily divided into three parts with a total of 54 chapters. The first 44 chapters are those which describe the adventures of Genji. The last ten chapters, known as Uji Chapters, follow his two descendents, Kaoru and Niou. The novel spans over 4000 pages and presents around four hundred characters.
The novel was written in the peak of Heian period in Japan and in archaic Japanese. It is a portrait of the aristocratic society in the empire and is believed to have been written to entertain the members of the royal court. There could be seen a faint influence of Buddhism in the end parts of the novel. There are number of interesting features about the novel. Most of the characters in it are unnamed. The characters are often referred to using their ranks in the society, or the colours of their dress, in case of women. Another notable aspect of the novel is the usage of poetry in the conversations.
The first attempt of translating Genji Monogatari into English was by Suematsu Kenchō. His tarnslation, published in 1882, however was not complete. The first complete translation was done in 1976, by Edward Seidensticker. The novel has often troubled the translators due to its archaic language and the writing style which vastly differs from the modern Japanese.
Although the authorship of Tale of Genji is attributed to Murasaki Shikibu, there are debates over it as well. Some scholars think that only a major part of the novel was written by Murasaki. Her daughter Daini no Sanmi was the author of last few chapters, mainly the Ujji chapters, they believe. Nevertheless, The Tale of Genji, stands tall in the history of Japanese literature as an all-time classic. Also dubbed as the first psychological novel in the world, it is acquiring new fans worldwide.

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Who painted the picture Guernica? Which tragedy inspired it?

Guernica is actually a Basque country town located in Spain. But at present the name is more famous for a legendary painting named after it rather than the town. Guernica, one of the most renowned works of arts, is painted by none other than Pablo Picasso. The painting is a prime example of the genius of Picasso, one of the foremost exponents of Cubist style in art. 
Guernica (black and white)
What inspired Picasso to create Guernica was a tragedy that befell the town during the Spanish civil war. On 26 April 1937, the war planes of Germany, who backed the Spanish government, showered hundreds of bombs on the town, killing thousands of innocent people and domestic animals. Picasso happened to read an eyewitness account of the tragedy by George Steer and the horror of the incident shook him hard. The ace painter, who hadn’t showed much interest in the war till then, decided to express his protest against such violence. And it was the culmination of his anger and anguish over the incident what became the world famous painting named Guernica.
Guernica is a mural-sized painting measuring 3.49 m of length and 7.76 m of height. Picasso does not portray the bomber planes or the havoc they created upon the town in his work. He expresses the horror of the calamity through a household destroyed in the bombing. He portrays the residents and the domestic animals suffering from the tragedy along with many symbolic representations.
The picture presents the events happening in a room and outside. It is full of scattered figures. An impassive bull, a horse crying from pain, a mother grieving over her dead child, a dismembered soldier, a frightened woman and many other figures appear in the picture. There can also be seen many objects with symbolic subtexts and peculiar triangles throughout the painting.
Guernica was actually started as a project commissioned by the Spanish Government. But when Picasso heard about the bombing he decided to drop the initial project and draw Guernica instead. It was finished in June 1937. Picasso took only weeks to finish the work. He has employed his various styles in the picture, including Cubism.
Guernica was first exhibited in the Paris International Exposition in the 1937 World’s Fair in Paris. Then it went on to be displayed at various venues and attracted worldwide attention. It is now displayed at Museo Reina Sofia, Madrid. There are still few paintings that express the anti-war sentiments as powerfully and emotively as Guernica.

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